The efforts chronicled in this series of case studies are not only designed to improve health outcomes, they are also poised to save the country billions in health care spending. According to one study published in 2009, more than 30 percent of direct medical costs faced by African Americans, Hispanics and Asian Americans can be tied to health inequi- ties. Because of inequitable access to care, these populations are sicker when they do find a source of care and incur higher medical costs. That 30 percent translates to more than $230 billion over a four-year period. If health disparities among minorities had not existed between 2003 and 2006, direct medical care spending would have been reduced by a whopping $229.4 billion.